Sunday, February 14, 2016

The Fruits of Love

In the 1500s, when Europeans discovered the tomato in South America, they believed it to have aphrodisiac qualities; the fruit was quickly given the French name pomme d'amour; in 16th century literature it was considered the "apple of love."
The word "tomato" is derived from the Mexican word tomatl). In the wild, the tomato is part of the nightshade family of narcotics and mild poisons. Those properties are found mostly in the leaves and stems.
Other fruits have symbolic amorous meanings, deserved or fictionalized.
  • An orange was a symbol of fecundity and the blossoms were used in ancient times as brides' wreaths.
  • A mulberry was revered in ancient China, while a classical Western legend claims that the berries acquired their red color only after the Babylonian lovers, Pyramus and Thisbe, bled and died under the white-berried mulberry tree. The Pryamus and Thisbe legend is the basis for the story Romeo and Juliet.
  • A pomegranate is a fertility symbol from ancient times, and in the Bible is compared to the joys of winning a lover (King James version Song of Solomon 4:3, 13; 6:11 ).
A book I recently read gave some theories on the meaning of flower colors and types. But times are changing. Ascribing meanings to agricultural items is probably taking a hit in today's cultures. Blackberry, and Apple will need new notations in the lexicons.

Thursday, December 31, 2015

Working on the Internet

If you haven't already, you might want to make use of more of the benefits provided by the Internet.

A few facts

It's been more than 50 years since J.C.R. Licklider (1915 –1990) began sharing his "Galactic Network" concept. What he conceptualized was a worldwide system of interconnected computers through which data and programs could be quickly accessed from any site. Sound familiar?

The term Internet developed from the concept of "Internetworking Architecture" (the high-level design of a communications system, including the choice of hardware, software, and protocols.) which, in 1972, became the basis for the system. This approach allowed use of individual network technology—not a static network architecture that limited provider choices. And, wow, have we come a long way since then!

What you get is what you look for

1. Join online forums that specialize in your professional field and marketing. Not only can you learn a lot, but offering suggestions to others is a good way to boost your confidence and not feel so isolated as you work. Most forums require little or no personal information from you.

2. For writers, conducting research on the Internet is a phenomenal time saver. Just don't get too intrigued by all the selections and side notes and forget your goal.

3. And then there are blogs. Two decades ago blogs were hard to find and subject matter was limited to the cyber technology and web design. The term "weblogs" (online references, journals and communication between Internet technology [IT] professionals) became shortened to blogs, and cyber aficionados picked up on the idea. Writing, publishing and book blogs make up a significant percentage. Photographers and DIY photo sites also keep blogs. Blog directories list the pages by subject, so finding your specialty is easy. You can subscribe to them, to be notified up new posts, and since many blogs are updated daily, the information is fresh.

4. National organizations all have online presence. The genre book organizations are abundant: mystery, SciFi, romance, young reader...Some sites are specifically for Indie authors, some for DIY authors, others for eBook authors. Photographers can find the preferred camera company, purchasing outlets and myriad posting sites--all with pages of tips and forums.

Freshen up your Internet connection

Because Internet Explorer (I.E.) comes standard on most computers, many people don't realize they have a choice of browsers with which to negotiate the Internet. Moreover, most of them are free. Since 1991, more than a dozen different browsers have been released. Many are faster than I.E. and render pages with fewer glitches—no special java plug-ins needed.

Your mail provider can also be updated. Secure mail servers such as, hotmail, and gmail are efficient, and easily accessed from any electronic device. They can also be configured to forward the mail to your PC inbox, where you aren't restricted to the factory-provided Outlook. (This tip isn't Microsoft bashing, merely suggesting alternatives.)
Don't forget the clouds. Cyberspace storage and retrieval systems are secure and can be accessed from any of the electronics most people rely on: tablets, smartphones, as well as PCs and laptops.

When you choose what will best serve your needs, your productivity will improve.
If you have Internet tips, please let us know.

Tuesday, December 29, 2015

Writing Book Reviews

Book reviews are some of our first memories of writing--the assignment in fifth grade you dreaded. I can recall staring at a sheet of paper and writing, "I liked this book because--" and drawing a blank. Now however, a book review is not something I'm forced to do, and I enjoy it. You could, too. Writing a book review a way to share with others their response to a book and can offer a peek at your expertise and a chance to be published. Periodicals—off line and online—allow many venues for good book reviews. By "good" I mean well written. Praise does not make a good review (although authors really enjoy that), nor does writing only a story-line summary of the book. Here are a few keys to a well-written review.

The read Often the idea of reviewing a book might not occur until after you've read it. In that case, go back and read it again. Use sticky tabs (or your e-book highlighter) to mark interesting passages. While reading, make notes on the major elements such as character development, story line, tone of narration. I once read a book where a character who had seemed primary through two-thirds of the book, vanished without explanation in the story's resolution. A reviewer's reaction to something like this could be pertinent for other readers. For genre fiction, you should be aware of "industry standards" before you read. Don't impose a mystery criteria on a fantasy book.
For nonfiction you want to notice the substantiating information that bolsters (or not) the overall premise. The book's direction should be evident in the title, preface and table of content. If the subject covers elements new to you, read articles and other books on the subject to determine the author's effectiveness of idea and presentation.
Your reaction This key is the basis for your writing. Allowing others know your response to a book gives the review life and substance. In your review, give personal feelings about the voice the author used, or the subject matter of the book. Point out the elements of the book that affected you the most. Was it subtly presented or bold? Did the characters seem alive to you, or one-dimensional? Was the presentation comfortable to read, or did language become too dense or too simplistic? Expressing your views is essential. With fiction you must do this without "giving away" the story. Often focus on the theme, or the development of one major character can support your feelings without telling the whole story.
The writing  As with any piece, your writing should be polished, and the review should follow the basic article format with a beginning, middle and end. A book review is actually an essay set down to give comment on a particular work. So you start with an introduction that suggests your take on the piece and will capture a reader's attention Example: "When I first started reading this book [you would give the full title here] I expected a starry-eyed view of city-life. Boy, was I wrong." An expansion of this sentence could give a briefing about the book--it is contemporary, thirty-something male protagonist, the setting. This is your beginning.
The middle would, of course, be the bulk of your review. It should concentrate on your evaluation of the way the story and characters were developed. Bring in elements you liked and disliked. These will be in the notes you took while reading the book. Cite passages to substantiate your feelings. Keep the tone of your writing consistent and be direct with your statements.
For the end of the review, give your statement about the book--your personal critique. This should in some way relate back to what you said in the introduction. Be certain the review has a feeling of finality and no new elements are included.
The presentation  The layout of your book review should follow basic writing guidelines either from the publisher, or as found in writing books. Your name and contact information should be on the first page, along with the a title for your review. Preliminary information is essential, with the author, title and sub-title, publisher and copyright date (in bibliographic form), number of pages, price and the ISBN number. Fictional example:
Amy Hasselbink
The Hat Trick
My Brief Futboling Experience
New York: Goalsetter Press, © 2003
280pp. $24.50
ISBN 0 00 257013 0

Tell if the book is cloth (hardback), trade or mass market paperback.
With so many online libraries and book stores, you can often publish the review directly the book page for the title you're reviewing. The publisher info is already in place, as well as an overview of the story. On these sites, don't be redundant. Skip right to your book review. The actual review should be in standard manuscript form.
Marketing With reviews for a brick-and-mortar publication, remember to treat this as you would any other submission. After you've written your draft, revised it (and revised it again). Your potential publisher could be a local newspaper, a magazine, or journal. As with any article, research your marketplace. If the book has relevance to a particular community, the newspapers and magazines in that area could be receptive. They can be found in online yellow pages. Don't overlook specialty niches where just a few alterations in your approach or wording could make the review appealing to a different source. As with articles, with just a little tweaking, you can reuse your hard work in many places. If you get enjoyment from book reviewing, you could even suggest yourself for a regular column for a regional or local publication.

Who knew? What you learned by slugging through those school assignments those many years ago could now bring you satisfaction, recognition and (in a few cases) even a little money.